• Glossary


    Bioavailability, as the word itself signals, has to do with the amount of CBD that actually enters the bloodstream and is used by the body. With CBD, because of the different methods of delivery and how the body processes them, some forms are better than others in terms of bioavailability.


    This term describes a hemp-derived product that contains more than just cannabidiol (CBD), including other beneficial cannabinoids, terpenes, and plant compounds, but no THC. Broad-spectrum, as a term of art, is often synonymous with PCR (phytocannabinoid-rich).


    Cannabinoids are the naturally occurring molecules in the hemp and cannabis plants which regulate enzymes in mammals and work with the intrinsic cannabinoid receptors in their bodies. Since the cannabinoid receptors in the body facilitate a large number of physiological and psychological reactions, CBD naturally affects the homeostasis of humans and your mammalian friends.


    Cannabis refers to a group of three plants with psychoactive properties, known as cannabis sativa, cannabis indica, and cannabis ruderalis. The different strains of cannabis plants have different potencies, often measured by their CBD:THC ratios. Cannabis indica and ruderalis tend to have a higher concentration of THC:CBD, but sativa strains have high CBD:THC ratios. Hemp is a strain of the Cannabis sativa plant, and thus has specific medicinal properties.


    CBD is the initialism for cannabidiol, one of the primary cannabinoids found naturally in hemp flowers and stalks, but not in hemp seeds. Be aware of products labeled as "hemp oil," for they may not contain CBD. Known mainly for its medicinal properties, CBD does not produce any psychoactive effects.

    Certificate of Analysis (CoA)

    CoAs are certificates and lab reports from reputable chemical-testing facilities, which provide official verification of the cannabinoid contents of the product. CoAs include analyses of potency tests, heavy-metals tests, solvent tests, and terpene tests, as well as ratios of CBD to THC in the batch. These analyses, which remain valid for one year, ensure that you are getting what you pay for. Always check the CoAs before purchase.


    An edible is anything that is safe to eat or consume by mouth. Edibles are also digestible goods. CBD comes in a variety of "edible" forms, and in such chewable forms as toothpicks.

    Endocannabinoid System

    The endocannabinoid system is a complex network of lipid-based endocannabinoids (cannabinoids which are produced naturally in the body) and cannabinoid-receptor proteins. The system is distributed throughout the body, including the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The reactions that take place in this system are extremely important for many natural bodily functions, including brain functions. The interactions between endocannabinoids, cannabinoids, and receptors play an important role in physiological and cognitive processes. They also influence mood, emotions, appetite, pain sensation, and memory. Cannabinoids found in the hemp plant interact with this system in similar ways to the body's own natural endocannabinoids.

    Entourage Effect

    The entourage effect occurs when the "whole plant" or all of the hemp-plant compounds (cannabinoids, terpenes, et al.) work together in the body for a balanced, synergistic effect. This effect usually does not occur with CBD isolates alone.


    "Full Spectrum" is the term used for certain types of CBD products that make use of a full spectrum of cannabinoids and plant compounds found in the hemp plant, as opposed to cannabidiol (CBD) by itself. When extracted from hemp, the remaining THC concentration in the compounds are less than 0.3% by dry weight. Full-spectrum products therefore contribute to the "entourage effect" and increase the bioavailability of CBD.


    Hemp, also called industrial hemp, is actually the low-THC cannabis sativa plant. Used for thousands of years in the production of clothing, construction materials, and paper, the hemp plant is known for its wide variety of medicinal properties. In the U.S., the legal strains of hemp have a THC content less than 0.3% by weight.

    Hemp Extracts

    Hemp extracts are any of the naturally occurring compounds extracted (with CO2 methods) from the hemp plant. All hemp plants contain CBD, but it is extracted from flowers and stalks, not the seeds. Therefore, hemp seed oils do not contain CBD. Most of the "hemp" products for sale on Amazon and eBay do not actually contain CBD, because they are products made from only the hemp seed extracts.


    An inhalant is a concentrated, pressurized cannabinoid compound that is designed to be breathed into the lungs. Inhalants, usually in form of inhalers and vapes, work very well for fast relief because of their high bioavailability and ease of use.


    CBD "isolate" means that the CBD molecules have been isolated from all other hemp cannabinoids (CBV, CBN, CBC, et al.). Thus, as indicated by the CoA, a CBD isolate contains zero THC.


    MCTs are medium-chain triglycerides. They are generally extracted from coconut or palm oils. As one of the healthiest dietary fats, MCT oils are popular today in keto diets, but MCT also serves as an excellent carrier for CBD and other cannabinoids. MCT is easy to digest, and it aids in CBD absorption. MCT also enhances the bioavailability of cannabinoids.


    All organic products are fully traceable from farm to end user. The standards for organic hemp are strict. Unlike non-organic production, which makes wide use of manufactured fertilizers and pesticides, organic hemp is tracked with rigorous inspection and certification through the supply chain.


    Phytocannabinoid-rich (PCR) is a term of art used to convey that the hemp-derived product has no THC, but does include a range of beneficial cannabinoids, along with the other hemp plant compounds, not just CBD.

    As an advertising term, PCR is often synonymous with broad-spectrum.


    Sublingual means literally, from Latin, "under the tongue." Tinctures and oil drops are usually taken sublingually. For better results, customers should hold the tincture under the tongue for 30-60 seconds, until the cannabidiol has been absorbed into the bloodstream, which increases its bioavailability.


    Terpenes are a class of naturally occurring compounds in hemp. There are over a hundred different terpenes, and they are often used by the plant as defense mechanisms. Terpenes have been found to have medicinal properties themselves, so in conjunction with other hemp-plant compounds, they work to enhance the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids.


    THC, or Tetrahydrocannabinol, is the chemical responsible for marijuana's psychoactive effects. It behaves in much the same way as endocannabinoids found in the body, by attaching to the CB receptors in the Endocannabinoid System. THC, when interacting with these receptors, stimulates the production of Dopamine, which can create a euphoric effect, often called “feeling high." CBD (Cannabidiol), another cannabinoid found in cannabis and hemp plants, can, counterintutively, impede the effects of THC.


    A tincture, an oil-based compound, is designed to be used orally and sublingually, but not as an inhalant.


    A topical, usually in the form of a balm, lotion, or spray, is any product that acts directly on the epidermis and the CB2 receptors, but does not enter the bloodstream. CBD topicals must be rubbed into the skin for optimal effect.


    Vape is short for vaporizer. As inhalants, vapes are popular because the vaporized product yields faster effects and higher bioavailability. CBD vapes come in a variety of forms: disposable vape pens, additives to vape liquids, and cartridges for vape devices.



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